Lancaster University Logo The Library West Window The Ruskin Library The Library Atrium
Lancaster University Library
Using the Library | Subject Support | Library News |

Citing references using the Harvard system

In the text

Cite your sources by putting the author's surname and the date of publication into round brackets:

In the reference list

The entries in the reference list or bibliography should be arranged in alphabetical order:

CONSTANTINO, R., CRANE, P. A., NOLL, B. S., DOSWELL, W. M. & BRAXTER, B. (2007) Exploring the feasibility of email-mediated interaction in survivors of abuse. Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, 14, 291-301.

HARRIS, J. W. (1979) Law and legal science : an inquiry into the concepts legal rule and legal system, Oxford, Clarendon Press.

KOSKENNIEMI, M. (2005) 'International law as therapy: Reading the health of nations. European Journal of International Law, 16, 329-341.

KOSKENNIEMI, M. (2005) 'International law in Europe: between tradition and renewal'. European Journal of International Law, 16, 113-124.

MAGGS (2002) Judicial review of the Manual for Courts Martial. IN SULLIVAN, D. H. & FIDELL, E. R. (Eds.) Evolving military justice. Annapolis, Naval Institute Press.

OLIVER, D. (2003) Constitutional reform in the United Kingdom, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

PENNER, J. E. (2008) The law of trusts, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

SLAPPER, G. & KELLY, D. (2006) The English legal system, London, Cavendish.

Reference list examples of different types of sources

Titles may be in italics or capitals, but bve consistent. Variations in punctuation are found in different forms of this style. These examples use the punctuation given in EndNote.

Single author:

OLIVER, D. (2003) Constitutional reform in the United Kingdom, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Two authors:

SLAPPER, G. & KELLY, D. (2006) The English legal system, London, Cavendish.

Book section from an edited book:

MAGGS, J. (2002) Judicial review of the Manual for Courts Martial. IN SULLIVAN, D. H. & FIDELL, E. R. (Eds.) Evolving military justice. Annapolis, Naval Institute Press.

Edition and series:

PENNER, J. E. (2008) The law of trusts. Core text series. 6th ed. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Journal article:

KOSKENNIEMI, M. (2005) 'International law as therapy: reading the health of nations'. European Journal of International Law, 16, 329-341.

Journal article - THREE or more authors:

CONSTANTINO, R., CRANE, P. A., NOLLS, B. S., DOSWELL, W. M. & BRAXTER. B. (2007) 'Exploring the feasibility of email-mediated interaction in survivors of abuse'. Journal of psychiatric & mental health nursing, 14, 291-301.

Some variations of this style substitute et al. for the names of second and subsequent authors.

Web page:

NICHOLSON, D. (2005) Soldiers on Pendle Hill. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/76/a4161476.shtml. [Accessed 18 November 2008].

Map:

ORDNANCE SURVEY (2004) Lancaster, Morecambe & Fleetwood. Rev ed. Southampton, Ordnance Survey.

Podcast

Plant genomics (2008) Science, [Podcast], 25 April 2008, http://bakser.aaas.org/SciencePodcast_080425.mp3.

Powerpoint presentation

FRANKLIN, M. (2008) NGOs, media activism and the digital age: social justice advocacy at the UN, [Powerpoint presentation], Management School, Lancaster University, [12 February 2008].

Further information

For more details and examples of further sources, see:

NEVILLE, C. (2007) The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagarism, Maidenhead, McGraw Hill Open University Press at YUWC