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Citing References

Citing references using the Chicago system

In the text

Cite your sources by refering the reader to a footnote containing information about the source used:

In the footnotes

1 Maggs, J. "Judicial Review of the Manual for Courts Martial." In Evolving Military Justice, edited by Dwight H. Sullivan and Eugene R. Fidell. (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2002), p. 42.

2 Moir, Lindsay. Reappraising the Resort to Force ; International Law, Jus Ad Bellum and the War on Terror. (Oxford: Hart, 2008), p. 87.

3 Moir, Lindsay. The Law of Internal Armed Conflict. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).

Cross referencing in the footnotes

There are a number of conventions used for subsequent citations of the same work, including:

1 Maggs, J. "Judicial Review of the Manual for Courts Martial." In Evolving Military Justice, edited by Dwight H. Sullivan and Eugene R. Fidell. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2002.

2 Ibid.

3 Moir, Lindsay. Reappraising the Resort to Force ; International Law, Jus Ad Bellum and the War on Terror. (Oxford: Hart, 2008).

4 Maggs, "Judicial review"

Ibid, short for ibidem meaning "in the same place", is used when a reference is to the same work as the previous reference. For subsequent but not consecutive uses of the same reference, an abbreviated reference is used giving the author's surname and a shortened version of the title.

In the reference list

The entries in the reference list or bibliography should be arranged in alphabetical order, either of all resources or of resources split into types such as primary and secondary materials. The second and subsequent lines of the reference should be indented:

Maggs, J. Judicial Review of the Manual for Courts Martial. In Evolving Military Justice, edited by Dwight H.

Sullivan and Eugene R. Fidell. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2002.

Moir, Lindsay. The Law of Internal Armed Conflict. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002)

____. Reappraising the Resort to Force ; International Law, Jus Ad Bellum and the War on

Terror. (Oxford: Hart, 2008).

Reference list examples of different types of sources

Single author:

Harris, J. W. Law and Legal Science : An Inquiry into the Concepts Legal Rule and Legal System. (Oxford:

Clarendon Press, 1979).

Two authors:

Slapper, Gary, and David Kelly. The English Legal System. 8th ed. (London: Cavendish, 2006).

Book section from an edited book:

Maggs, J. "Judicial Review of the Manual for Courts Martial." In Evolving Military Justice, edited by Dwight H.

Sullivan and Eugene R. Fidell. (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2002).

Edition and series:

Penner, J. E. The Law of Trusts. 6th ed, Core Text Series. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008).

Journal article:

Koskenniemi, M. "International Law in Europe: Between Tradition and Renewal." European Journal of

International Law 16, no. 1 (2005): 113-24.

Journal article - four or more authors:

Constantino, R., P. A. Crane, B. S. Noll, W. M. Doswell, and B. Braxter. "Exploring the Feasibility of Email-

Mediated Interaction in Survivors of Abuse." Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health

Nursing 14, (2007): 291-301.

Web page:

Nicholson, Don. Soldiers on Pendle Hill. http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/76/a4161476.shtml

(accessed 2 April 2007).

Powerpoint presentation

Franklin, M. NGOs, Media Activism and the Digital Age: Social Justice Advocacy at the UN. Management

School, Lancaster University, 2008. Powerpoint presentation.

Further information

For more details and examples of further sources, see:

NEVILLE, C. (2007) The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagarism, Maidenhead, McGraw Hill Open University Press at YUWC or online in NetLibrary via MetaLib

The Chicago Manual of Style. 15th ed. (Chicago ; London: University of Chicago Press, 2003) at ZCL